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Доменіальний (вотчинний, панський, поміщицький) суд на теренах України (Demesnial (Manorial, Seigniorial, Landlord) Court within the Territory of Ukraine)

Попелюшко, В. О. (V. Popeliushko ) (2016) Доменіальний (вотчинний, панський, поміщицький) суд на теренах України (Demesnial (Manorial, Seigniorial, Landlord) Court within the Territory of Ukraine). Часопис Національного університету «Острозька академія». Серія «Право». (2(14)).

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Abstract

У статті розглядаються витоки доменіального суду на теренах України, а саме, його походження від суду сімейного. Показано, що за Київської Русі цей суд як суд землевласника над залежними, проживаючими на його землях людьми набув характеру вотчинного церковного та світського. За литовсько-руської та польської діб він, як суд світських та церковних магнатів-феодалів над селянами кріпаками під назвою панського суду, став чи не найпоширенішим у державі судом. За часів Гетьманщини панський суд «поповнився» судом козацької старшини над наданою їй людністю сіл і приватновласницьких міст у «послушаніе», а з втратою Україною автономії, у складі Російської імперії цей суд набув характеру російського поміщицького. Припинив своє існування доменіальний суд у 1861 р. в результаті реформи, якою було скасовано кріпосне право. (The article deals with the origins of demesnial court within the territory of Ukraine, particularly its derivation from family court as the trial of family members by the head of household. This concerns the time when a family started constituting serves who under the legal custom began to be subject to the trial of family members by the head of household as the landlord. Thus, from here, the name of the then existing court has been derived – manorial court. Connectedness of manorial court with land possession and its sanctioning with enacted law already existing in Kievan Rus are its peculiarities within the Ukrainian lands. In Kievan Rus, initially, the church manorial court had been legally formalized, and after that formalization took place in terms of seigniorial court. This sequence was also characteristic for the Lithuanian Ruthenian period. In the Lithuanian Ruthenian state, manorial court had been legally completed in Casimir's Code of 1468 with further formalization in the other legislative instruments including all the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of 1529, 1566, and 1588 under the title ‘seigniorial court’. Landowners or judicial managers appointed by them performed as judges. All the civil and criminal cases of the individuals who belonged to landowners, mostly peasant serves, were subject to the jurisdiction of seigniorial court. Judicial power of landowners was unlimited. In criminal cases, they could punish with death penalty. Rzeczpospolita incorporated the legislation of the Lithuanian Ruthenian state in terms of seigniorial court within the territory of Ukraine. During the time of Rzeczpospolita, seigniorial court together with Magdeburg rights in the cities was ‘the cemetery’ of the Ukrainian people’s community court. In the time of the Cossack Hetmanate, seigniorial courts of the Left-bank Ukraine were appended with the court of Cossack foremen. The latter ones obtained the former landowners’ subservients for a so-called ‘obedience’, in fact, for being a serf, under the universals of Cossack colonels. However, these courts, in comparison with seigniorial courts of the Lithuanian Ruthenian state and Rzeczpospolita, were much more democratic. When Ukraine had lost its autonomy as a part of the Russian Empire, since the beginning of the 19th century, seigniorial courts turned into a type of the Russian landlord courts. They were absolutely abolished in 1861 as the result of the peasant reform through serfdom law reversal.)

Item Type: Article
Corporate Creators: Національний університет "Острозька академія" (The National University of Ostroh Academy)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Терени України, сімейний суд, вотчинний суд, панський суд, поміщицький суд (Аncestral lands of Ukraine, family court, the seat of the court, the landlord's court, manorial court)
Subjects: by fields of science > Science of law > Civil Law. Judicial arrangement
Наукові збірники НаУОА
Divisions: I. Malynovskyi Institute of Law > The Department of Justice and Criminal Law
Depositing User: заввідділу Наталя Денисенко
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2018 07:06
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2018 07:06
URI: http://eprints.oa.edu.ua/id/eprint/7400

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