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Евфемістичні трансномінації в сучасній німецькій мові

Капуш, А. (A. Kapush) (2015) Евфемістичні трансномінації в сучасній німецькій мові. Наукові записки Національного університету “Острозька академія”. Серія «Філологічна» (Вип.51). pp. 207-209.

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У статті розглядаються мовні та позамовні чинники виникнення евфемістичних номінативних одиниць у словниковому складі німецької мови. Аналізуються структура, семантика, прагматичний потенціал даної групи лексики та демонструється її динамічний характер. (The article deals with linguistic and extralinguistic factors of emerging of euphemistic nominative units in the German language; it analyzes the structure, semantics and pragmatic potential of this group of vocabulary. Extralinguistic determinism of euphemisms is a complex of intentions of social, psychological and cultural nature which promotes the replacement of «undesirable» name for a constant object or phenomenon. The reason for the use of euphemisms are pragmatic considerations of courtesy, decency, taboo principle, desire to disguise the negative nature of referents. The use of euphemisms in politics is dictated by the regulatory principle of influence on general reader. Factors relevant to euphemizing of linguistic units are belonging them to a certain lexical semantic group (eg. abstract nouns) and the amount of the semantic structure of the word (polysemantic words have more euphemistic potential.) Pragmatic intent of a communicator to cause a positive reaction in the recipient determines the appropriate repertoire of linguistic resources to achieve this goal. The positive effect of the statement which contains euphemism is achieved primarily due to the positive initial semantics of the word or its component which is selected by the speaker as a substitute of the direct referent name. Thus, in terms of evaluation, there is a significant overestimation of the marked object compared to its content. Positive semantics of individual words can provide positive pragmatic effect to the whole phrase. Lexical units borrowed from other languages can be used as euphemisms, due to their unclear semantics they are not always understood by native speakers. The euphemisms are characterised by their evanescence – through frequent use of transnomination, the sign which was placed in its foundation ceases to be felt by the speaker and euphemism is becoming perceived as the main definition of the referent. As a result, the emergence of a new euphemism becomes apparent. The article gives examples of euphemisms which were used at different stages of the recent German history. Special attention is given to the research of the euphemisms which are frequently used in the socio-political sphere, the sphere of economics, advertising and etc. The theoretical conclusions concerning the functioning of such units in speech are illustrated with the actual linguistic material.)

Item Type: Article
Corporate Creators: Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана
Uncontrolled Keywords: Евфемізм, номінація, позамовні чинники, словник, лексична одиниця, лексичне значення (Euphemisms, nomination, extralinguistic factors, vocabulary, lexical unit, lexical meaning)
Subjects: by fields of science > General issues of linguistics and literature
Depositing User: Галина Цеп'юк
Date Deposited: 30 May 2016 08:05
Last Modified: 30 May 2016 08:05

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