Digital Repository of Ostroh Academy

Вплив релігійно-світоглядних чинників на організацію простору в будівлях найдавніших поселень Близького Сходу XI-VII тисячоліть до н.е. (The infl uence of religious and worldview factors on the organization of space in the buildings of the most ancient settlements of the Middle East XI – VII millennium BC.)

Бондарчук, Я. (Bondarchuk Y. ) (2019) Вплив релігійно-світоглядних чинників на організацію простору в будівлях найдавніших поселень Близького Сходу XI-VII тисячоліть до н.е. (The infl uence of religious and worldview factors on the organization of space in the buildings of the most ancient settlements of the Middle East XI – VII millennium BC.). Вісник ХДАДМ. Історія мистецтва (№ 2). pp. 38-45.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Download (579kB)

Abstract

У статті простежується вплив релігійно-світоглядних уявлень на організацію простору споруд найдавніших поселень XI–VII тис. до н. е. Доведено, що домінування модулю у вигляді кола в доземлеробських поселеннях XI–IX тис. до н. е. було обумовлено не лише центричним сприйняттям простору, характерним для насельників постійних осель, але й переважанням культу Сонця, видима форма якого повторювалась у планах споруд. Поступовий перехід до прямокутних планів у IX– VII тис. до н. е. обумовлювався не тільки більшою зручністю зведення споруди, але й був наслідком виникнення землеробства і праці на прямокутних ділянках землі, що змінило релігійно-світоглядні пріоритети, надавши перевагу культам землі, та спонукало до наслідування в планах будівель сим- волу землі — прямокутника. З’ясовано, що провідні релігійно-світоглядні уявлення XI–VII тис. до н. е. отримали відображення в характеристиках домінантних на той час зодіакальних знаків Лева, що позиціює принцип центризму, та Рака, який позиціює лінійний принцип розвитку і руху. (One of the most characteristic features of the architecture of the Middle East settlements of the 11th – 7th millennium BC there is a gradual transition from round to rectangular in terms of buildings. Researchers explain this phenomenon by practical factors, in particular, the greater convenience in erection and distribution of interior space on separate rooms. However, the organization of the interior space of buildings depended on the religious perception of the space of the world. Infl uence of religious-worldview factors on the architecture of buildings XI – VII millennium BC is an unresolved problem. It is expedient to link it to another problem raised in the scientifi c literature of the last decades and relates to the refl ection of the leading religious-worldview ideas of any historical period in the characteristic of the dominant zodiac sign at that time, in which the point of intersection of the ecliptic and the equator is for 2150 – 2160 years. This is due to the fact that ancient astronomers could determine in which constellation the sun rose on the day of vernal equinox and associated with him a number of concepts and principles that refl ect the main religious-ideological ideas of time. However, it is not clear whether the characteristics of the dominant signs of the zodiac corresponded to the leading religious ideas and cults of the earlier periods of history, prior to the emergence of astronomy. the ancient Middle Eastern settlements of XI – VII millennium BC to trace the infl uence of religious-worldview ideas on the organization of the space of structures and to investigate whether is refl ection of the main religious notions of this time in the characteristics of the dominant zodiac signs, under which the point of the equinox was then. Results. The considered monuments of residential and religious construction indicate that the inhabitants of the ancient settlements of the 11th – the fi rst millennium BC (Chayionu-Tepesi, Nevali Chori, Halan Chemi, Einan), who had not yet known agriculture, built round-builds. Plans of their buildings repeated the visible form of the Sun, which was of great importance for gatherers of wild plants. In the IX millennium BC with the emergence of agriculture and labour on rectangular fi elds building plans gradually change from round to rectangular. This phenomenon is due to the fact that the spread of agriculture intensifi ed the cult of the Earth. The symbol of the earth – a rectangle (from a rectangular plot of the fi eld) became the basis for the plans of houses in agricultural settlements. The transition from the circle module to the rectangle module show the buildings of Chayionu-Tepesi, Nevali Chori, Gebekli Tepe and others settlements. Main in the 11th – 19th millennium BC the cult of the Sun, which conditioned the principle of centrism, embodied in the circle in the construction of dwellings and sanctuaries, was refl ected in the characteristic of the dominant zodiac sign of that time Leo, which asserts leadership, power, desire to be the centre. After all, its ruler is the Sun – the centre, which organizes the movement of 7 planets of its system. The transition to reproductive farm and strengthening the cult of the Earth, which caused the appearance of plans of buildings in the form of a symbol of the earth – a rectangle, coincided in time with the transition of the solar system in the middle of the IX millennium BC in the zodiac sign of Cancer, one of the main characteristics of which is the positioning of the principle of reproduction and the linear principle of development and movement. Conclusions. The results of the study confi rm the infl uence of religious-worldview ideas on the organization of the space of sacred and residential buildings of the XI–VII millennium BC, as well as the refl ection of the leading in the XI–VII millennium BC the cults of the Sun and the Earth in the characteristics of the dominant at that time zodiac signs of the Lion (10 750 – 8600 BC) and Cancer (8600 – 6450 BC). The refl ection of prevailing religious-worldview ideas in the characteristics of zodiac signs in a period when people still did not know astronomy so much to determine the main constellation (in which the sun rose on the day of vernal equinox and give it an appropriate characteristic), indicates that it is – the consequence is not human thought, but higher intelligence. This conclusion does not contradict the modern post-non-classical interpretation of the historical development of mankind, to which the monadological concept is approached, where the key notion of “monad” appears as God, Reason, Reason, Principle of all things, a cause of the unity and integrity of history. Novelty. For the fi rst time, the infl uence of the cults of the Sun and the Earth on the organization of space in the buildings of the XI–VII millennium BC was shown and the refl ection of religious-worldview ideas in the characteristics of the dominant at that time zodiac signs of the Lion and Cancer. Perspective in this direction may be the study of the infl uence of leading cults on the construction of sacred earthen and stone structures V – I millennium BC and the refl ection of the main religious-worldview ideas in the characteristics of the dominant then zodiac signs of Taurus and Aries.)

Item Type: Article
Corporate Creators: Національний університет "Острозька академія" (The National University of Ostroh Academy)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Близький Схід XI–VII тис. до н. е., вплив релігійно-світоглядних уявлень на організацію простору споруд, домінування модулю кола, домінування модулю прямокутника, зодіакальні знаки Лева і Рака (Middle East XI – VII millennium BC, the influence of religious and worldview notions on the organization of the space of buildings, the dominance of the circle module, the dominance of the rectangle module, zodiac signs of the Lion and Cancer)
Subjects: by fields of science > Art
Divisions: The College of Political Studies and Information Management > The Department of Documentation and Information Activities
Depositing User: заввідділу Наталя Денисенко
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2020 20:32
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2020 20:32
URI: http://eprints.oa.edu.ua/id/eprint/8107

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item